Another Big Player for a Neighbor
March 22, 2006
By Ian Pryde
Special to Russia Profile
Kazakhstan has a long common border with China to the east and has been exporting Caspian oil to China’s north-western province Xinjiang by rail since the 1990s. In 2005, Kazakhstan exported about 30,000 barrels per day to China via the Alashankoy rail crossing – a far cry from the 200,000 Russia exported to China in the same year.
哈薩克，與中國有著長長的共同邊界，自 1990 年代以來一直以鐵路運輸的方式出口裡海（Caspian）的石油到中國的西北省分新疆。在 2005 年的時候，哈薩克輸出到中國的油量大約一天三萬桶，同年俄國出口到中國的油量是二十萬桶。
However, in August 2005, state-owned oil company China National Petroleum Corp (CNPC) agreed to buy PetroKazakhstan, a Canadian firm based in Calgary and listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, for $4.18 billion as part of China’s strategy to reduce its dependence on foreign-owned firms and boost its energy supplies. The purchase went through in October, after a Canadian court turned down an attempt by the Russian oil firm LUKoil to block the sale.
然自 2005 年 8 月開始，中國國家石油集團以 41.8 億併購了哈薩克石油公司，一家位於卡加利（Calgary）並且在多倫多證交所掛牌上市的加拿大籍公司。這是中國擴展能源來源策略的一部份 -- 併購外籍公司以降低對外國石油公司的依賴。這個併購在十月完成，其間歷經一家俄籍石油公司 LUKoil 的阻撓，但是遭到加拿大法庭的駁回。
The acquisition was a logical extension of China’s operations in Kazakhstan, which is looking to increase its oil exports by expanding its infrastructure. CNPC, China’s biggest oil producer, and the Kazakhstan National Petroleum and Natural Gas Company (KMG), are financing and building a pipeline from Kazakhstan to China. The first section was completed in 2003 and runs across Western Kazakhstan from the Aktobe oil fields to the oil hub at Atyrau. Construction began on the second segment of the Kazakhstan-China pipeline in late September 2004 and was completed in November 2005. It has a capacity of some 140 million barrels of crude per year. The Chinese side is responsible for filling the pipeline from its own oil fields in Kazakhstan, although Russia’s state-owned Rosneft oil company, which already exports oil to China by rail, wants to ship 8.8 million barrels of oil via the pipeline this year.
此併購之舉，符合中國在哈薩克經營的手段，他們的手法是以擴充基礎建設的方式增加石油出口。中國石油天然氣集團公司（CNPC）是中國最大的石油公司，目前正與哈薩克國家石油與天然氣公司（KMG）合資從哈薩克埋設石油輸送管線到中國。管線的第一段在 2003 年已經完成，從西哈薩克到阿克糾賓（Aktobe）油田，到阿特勞（Atyrau） 的石油中心。第二階段在 2004 年九月開工，銜接哈薩克和中國，且已經在 2005 年 11 月完工。此油管的運送能力高達每年可運送一億四千萬（140 million）桶原油。輸送中國自己的在哈薩克擁有的油田生產的油，是屬於中國方面的責任，不過俄國擁有的 Rosneft 石油公司，原先就以鐵路方式運送石油出口到中國，今年也打算透過此油管運送八百八十萬桶的石油。
However, the crude exported through the Kazakhstan-China pipeline will account for less than 5 percent of China’s total needs. A Kazakh official admitted in June 2005 that, in spite of the Kazakhstan-China and Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipelines, Kazakhstan would still need additional export capacity of some 300,000 to 400,000 barrels per day by 2011. But a further expansion eastwards seems to have been ruled out, since President Nursultan Nazarbayev said in June 2004 that he would prefer an export pipeline running through Iran to the Persian Gulf to one running through China or Russia or connecting to the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.
但透過哈薩克－中國油管運送的原油，只佔中國總需油量的 < 5%。一位哈薩克官員在 2005 年 6 月指出，儘管有 哈薩克－中國 和 Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan 管線，到了 2011 年，哈薩克將會需要額外的每日三十∼四十萬桶的石油運送能力。不過，繼續向東延伸管線的選項似乎已經被否決，因為納札巴耶夫（Nursultan Nazarbayev） 總統在 2004 年 6 月時表示他寧可透過連接到伊朗的管線把石油送至到波斯灣的方式出口，而不願意透過哈薩克－中國 和 Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan 油管。
Kazakhstan and China also cooperate on hydro-electric power, which supplies nearly 20 percent of Kazakhstan’s electricity consumption. The River Irtysh, which generates Kazakhstan’s electricity, rises in China’s Altai Mountains, and the two countries have held negotiations on the management of the river since 1999.
哈薩克和中國並且合作開發水力發電，提供哈薩克將近百分之二十的電力需求。負責至在哈薩克電力的額爾齊斯河（Irtysh） 是源自中國阿爾泰山區（Altai Mountains），而兩國自 1999 年以來就已協同管理該河。
[China], [Kazakhstan], [Russia], [oil]